Recent articles by Michael Windsor
The question as to whether schools can teach character has been around for as long as people have been discussing education. Indeed, in the 1860s the Head of a Scottish school listed his priorities as follows: First - Character. Second - Physique. Third - Intelligence. More recently, during her comparatively brief spell in the Department for Education, Nicky Morgan prioritised ‘character education’, perhaps as a response to Michael Gove’s sharper focus on qualifications.
When we drill down into what sort of character we might want to develop in our children, the focus tends to be upon ‘grit’; the ability to take on challenges and to bounce back from difficulty. There is a perception that this is a particular priority today as our children require greater resilience in order to cope with the relentless pace and pressures of modern society.
While the responsibility for building resilience should not lie with schools alone, they can play a significant role in providing opportunities that challenge young people and require them to display fortitude and resilience. The hope has to be of course that they can take what they learn in one particular context and transfer it to other areas of life, which can be difficult to achieve. To assist with this, schools are equipping pupils with the language and concepts to talk openly about the value and importance of resilience and helping them to transfer attributes to different contexts.
Arguably, the best way to develop resilience in pupils is by presenting them with challenges that will stretch them and will require perseverance and mental strength to overcome. Different pupils will find challenge in very different activities, be it Outward Bound adventures, public speaking, performing in a concert or simply volunteering an answer in a lesson.
It’s interesting to see how schools are building approaches that will develop resilience into the curriculum and their everyday teaching. Progress in computer science, for example, depends upon pupils realising that being uncertain and getting things wrong is not only acceptable but actually vital. Computational thinking requires a constant process of debugging, tinkering and persevering until a piece of code does what you want it to do in the most effective possible way.
We know that good quality feedback is highly significant in enabling pupils to make progress. In a French lesson recently, I saw a teacher skilfully turn a pupil’s embarrassment when he made a common grammatical mistake into a really useful opportunity for the whole class to benefit by exploring how to address the original error. It’s simple, and what good teaching has always been about, but with time this sort of approach can help pupils lose their fear of making mistakes, a fear which really can choke confidence and progress.
We can also build resilience by stretching pupils with tasks that they may struggle even to complete. The Abingdon Film Unit, which gives students at Abingdon and partner schools the opportunity to make short films under expert guidance, is philosophical when pupils fail to complete projects or decide to change tack completely in the middle of a piece of work. Jeremy Taylor, Head of the Film Unit, summarised their approach like this:
‘We are the products of the journeys we have undertaken. Where they lead us is perhaps less relevant than the fact that they have taken us somewhere. And for as long as we are willing to start journeys, and as long as we have the capacity to move on from that "somewhere" in one direction or another, there can be no sense of having failed.’
I’d hope that this sort of approach can inspire our current generation of students to relish any challenge that comes their way and to set themselves up to embrace the opportunities of the future.
Michael Windsor, Headmaster, Abingdon School
Choosing a school can be a stressful business. We are fortunate in the Oxford area to have a great choice of schools both in the maintained and independent sectors but parents still understandably spend a great deal of time and anxiety weighing up their options.
Independent education may not be on the radar for all families for a variety of reasons but parents are sometimes quick to rule it out on the grounds of cost alone. There is though a great deal of assistance available in the form of bursaries and scholarships and it’s certainly worth looking into, even if your first thought is that independent education is likely to be out of reach.
Schools vary in the type of scholarships and bursaries they offer but generally scholarships do not take parental income into account but bursaries are means-tested. Scholarships are awarded on the basis of ability in a particular area. Many schools offer academic scholarships but they are also usually available in other areas of achievement, such as sport, music, drama and art.
Different schools attach different values to their scholarships, they can represent a hefty discount at some schools, though not all. At Abingdon, the monetary value of scholarships is nominal with the essential benefit being that scholars gain from extension programmes which are designed to stretch them and give extra value beyond the standard curriculum. In return, we expect a high degree of commitment and leadership in the area for which they have been given the scholarship.
Bursaries are means-tested reductions in fees that enable pupils whose family cannot afford full fees to attend independent schools. There is a wide range of bursaries available, from those that cover full fees plus extras to partial bursaries where families do make some financial contribution. The level of bursaries is related to the financial need of the family, rather than the academic ability of the pupil, although in schools where entrance is selective, applicants will need to meet the normal entry criteria.
There is a lot of assistance available. In the last academic year, pupils at schools in the Independent Schools Council received £900 million in fee assistance, an increase of 4.9% on the previous year, which meant that 33% of pupils received some sort of help with their fees.
Bursary information is usually available on the Admissions pages of school websites and admissions teams are also primed to help. Schools have different ways of assessing need but parents will normally complete a bursary application form where details of income and assets are given. Some schools require a home visit. All information given in the application process is confidential and if a child receives a bursary that also remains confidential throughout their time at the school. Parents often worry that their children will be treated differently at school but this is absolutely not the case. Children receiving bursary awards are treated in exactly the same way as all other children.
The process of applying for a bursary can seem daunting but there is plenty of advice and support available on the way; schools really do want to help. It is certainly worth the trouble as the outcomes can be life-changing. It is a real joy to see pupils thriving and going on to achieve some spectacular successes. So my advice would be not to hold back but get in touch and put in that application.
Michael Windsor, Headmaster, Abingdon School
Academics from Newcastle University recently suggested that boys and girls should not be allowed to play contact rugby, citing the risk of concussion and the longer-term problems that this could cause. It seems reasonable of course to take action in the interests of the health and well-being of our children. But the question of whether we allow contact in youth rugby leads to a wider-ranging, and I believe important, debate about the level of risk we are prepared to let our children take.
Let’s deal with the issue of rugby first. This is a sport that is thriving nationally and we are fortunate to have a particularly strong club and school scene in the Oxford area. Undoubtedly the sport does carry some risk but this is hugely outweighed by the benefits it brings, which are particularly valuable in a time where obesity is on the rise. It’s been really exciting to see the growth in the number of people, and especially girls, playing rugby in recent years and it would be a real shame if this were to be reversed in response to the Newcastle research.
Rugby has changed significantly in its approach for younger players. The game that our children play is very different from the one that we see on our screens during the Six Nations. The changes made to youth rugby put the emphasis on skills and safety rather than physical power. For instance, scrummaging is introduced in a phased approach that ensures that we no longer see weaker or smaller packs being marched backwards down the field at a dangerous pace.
Contact is introduced gradually so that by the time players are involved at a senior level, they have had the chance to learn the skills that will allow them to tackle in a safer way. Far more sensible and rigorous protocols are now in place to prevent and treat concussion. Perhaps most importantly, the training offered to coaches and teachers is considerably more professional and serious than it ever used to be.
Concussion is scary and can have very significant consequences. But I see the response of the RFU as a good example of managed risk, an approach that is echoed in schools today in many different areas. Although we love to pour scorn on the myths of health and safety gone mad, of conkers being banned in the playground, in reality I think teachers recognise that pupils do need to take risks sometimes in the interests of personal development.
Anyone who has seen the growth in confidence in a pupil who has just completed her Duke of Edinburgh expedition or completed his first solo climb can bear witness to the huge benefit that overcoming challenge and risk brings to young people.
Adolescents are by their nature risk-takers, as they work out the world for themselves and challenge the rules that have been passed on to them by their elders. I would far rather they indulged their appetite for risk in an environment that is controlled and fundamentally safe. Indeed, we need to see that dreaded phrase ‘health and safety’ as a concept of enablement, an approach that simply allows our young people to live their lives to the full in as safe a way as possible.
We will never be able to remove risk from the lives of young people. Let’s embrace it, manage it and then watch our children thrive.
Michael Windsor, Headmaster, Abingdon School
Picasso famously said that art ‘washes from the soul the dust of everyday life’. But this sense of spiritual nourishment and invigoration is only one of the benefits of a rich cultural life in our schools.
One of the great pleasures in my first year as Headmaster at Abingdon has been the opportunity simply to soak up what is going on around the school on a day-to-day basis. Abingdon is known for its Other Half - our term for the formidable extra-curricular offer here - that sees our pupils taking part in over 120 activities, ranging from bell-ringing to lacrosse, from robotics to sailing. All part of our commitment to developing character, to allowing pupils to find their niche within the school and discover the best vehicles with which to establish and express their own personalities.
The arts are a cornerstone of our Other Half programme, and indeed they play a key part in the development of all our pupils. There are manifold reasons why we feel that it is important that our pupils have a strong grounding in the arts. A starting point might be the potential boost given to mental health. Psychologists have written of the benefits of achieving a state of ‘flow’, when you become so absorbed in the activity that you are undertaking that you lose all sense of yourself. Involvement in art, drama or music is a great way to achieve this ‘flow’ and can offer a welcome release from pupils’ day-to-day pressures - as well as an opportunity for them to escape from the tyranny of the mobile phone and social media.
The arts obviously also offer wonderful outlets for self-expression while at the same time providing a useful vehicle for pupils to consider complex issues. One way this happens at Abingdon is through the Film Unit which assembles a team of industry professionals who work alongside Abingdon pupils to make a diverse range of productions from animations to documentaries on location in Cambodia and Moldova. The results are extraordinary, as the pupils produce work of great maturity and style, often taking on demanding subjects. A recent film by two Year 10 pupils, Fade Away, captured the experience of living with dementia in a powerful and thoughtful way that won them the Best Young Filmmaker Award at the National Student Film Festival. As the best art does, the film captured the emotions around dementia far more effectively than a factual description could convey.
There are also wonderful opportunities in the arts to learn about leadership and teamwork. A coaching session by the Fitzroy String Quartet earlier in the year encouraged our musical ensembles to think about how they interact in rehearsal and how they can listen to one another more effectively. Of course, the arts provide fertile ground for friendships to form, and this was apparent on our orchestra’s recent tour to Germany. The camaraderie is also apparent in a group like the Big Band, as pupils encourage one another and respond to their colleagues’ solos and improvisations.
Involvement in the arts contributes positively to building the community within the school, not least as it engenders interaction across the various year groups. It also allows our pupils to look beyond the school walls. For example, members of the Film Unit recently produced an exceptional short film for the Sobell House charity to use in their fund-raising. This was a challenging assignment that required the young film-makers to show great sensitivity and maturity, with uplifting and heartening results.
This sense of stretch and challenge underpins all that we undertake in the arts. Our recent production with St Helen’s and St Katharine’s of the musical London Road presented cast, crew and band with significant musical, dramatic and technical challenges, which they responded to superbly. A singing workshop with the opera singer Richard Burkhard earlier this year placed real demands on the young singers involved but the improvement that they showed was remarkable. The growth in their confidence was palpable too.
Although we want to make sure that there are opportunities for pupils of all levels of ability to get involved with the arts, I believe strongly that we do need to present our pupils with challenges in their cultural life at a young age. I want them to take on tasks which may not come easily to them at first but which can leave them fearless in the face of challenge while learning too to embrace all forms of culture.
The rewards will sustain them throughout their lives.
Michael Windsor, Headmaster, Abingdon School