School Blog

In September 2018 we started a school blog to which anyone from the Abingdon community can contribute. Topics are wide ranging, we hope you enjoy it.

By Paul Gooding, Head of Wellbeing and Geography Teacher

I had the pleasure of taking a group of year 10 students to St Helen and St Katharine School, just down the road from Abingdon School, for an “Empathy Action event”. Their chapel had been very effectively designed as a makeshift shanty town complete with various actors (NGO workers, shop owners, racketeers and the like) wandering around powerfully engaging with the students. Our boys were thrown in at the deep end and for nearly two hours had a taste of what it must be like for millions of people in the world.

Living the curriculum in this way was so powerful. Boys had to earn their rent, food and water by making paper bags to then sell to shop owners in the face of stiff competition from rival groups. Conditions were harsh: it was noisy, (police car sirens were going off on the speakers, babies were crying) stressful and chaotic. The leader guided them through several “scenario weeks” and it became clear that as some families struggled to pay their debts they had to move into worse conditions and various outbreaks of infectious disease spread through the communities. It served as a powerful reminder of how many millions of people live each day and of the importance of giving back both to our society and the wider world. I had the privilege, at the end, of sharing a few ways in which Abingdonians can and do do this. 

We reminded boys about the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, where a significant section of the award is based on a service activity. This might be volunteering at an old peoples' home or in the community. Boys were also reminded about helping at a local food bank or joining with charity ventures that take place here in school, such as the Abingdon Sleeps Rough event. A fantastic opportunity each year is the Moldova trip where boys are able to help and make a difference in one of the poorest countries in Europe. But the message goes beyond trips and experiences good though these are; it is about encouraging Abingdonians to live their lives with an ongoing posture that is outward facing, far removed from the “selfie” culture that we often see on Instagram.

This message coincided wonderfully with a recent chapel talk from Mr Crisp in which he took up the theme of humility. In short, he concluded: “not thinking less of yourself but thinking of yourself less”. In my 13th year at Abingdon this is a wonderful characteristic of our boys. I think back to a former Head of School who now offers free legal advice to the poor in Africa, to another OA who walked from Land's End to John O Groats sleeping rough all the way - raising awareness of the problem of homelessness. 

In this fast-paced digital age where amazing Instagram pictures can, sometimes, generate a sense of dissatisfaction it was a timely reminder that we have so much to be thankful for and that we have a responsibility to encourage our boys to use their gifts, talents and passions to make a difference in their lives and careers beyond school. To not underestimate those daily acts of kindness and to reflect on those powerful words that I once walked past on the memorials of Washington D.C, attributed to Gandhi: “the measure of the strength of a society is how it treats its weakest members.”

If we can encourage Abingdonians to develop this ongoing posture in their lives, I believe we will, as educators and parents, have given them a great gift.

Building confidence to speak in public; a skill for life
By Michael Windsor, Headmaster

A number of Old Abingdonians recently returned to the School to share insights into careers. It’s always great to catch up with former pupils and I really enjoyed hearing the stories they recounted of where life had taken them after Abingdon. Their routes were extremely diverse but it was striking how they had continued to draw upon their experiences at school in their working lives.

One former pupil, who described himself unashamedly as a ‘geek’, had spent as much time as possible at school programming, dismantling and building computers. Perhaps unsurprisingly, he moved into the tech industry after university and he now runs his own start-up, working in the US and the UK. His time in the school computer suite has clearly paid off but he also described how his role as CEO now required him to speak frequently in public, in order, for example, to give presentations to groups of potential investors. He explained that on these occasions he drew directly on his experiences of playing in concerts at Abingdon, experiences which had taught him to control his nerves and perform with confidence.

The ability to speak confidently in public is a vital one in many professions and I believe that there are many different ways in which we prepare our pupils for this undertaking. As the Old Abingdonian I described above showed, there are many different ways in which pupils can develop the confidence to hold an audience’s attention. It might be through music or drama, by teaching younger cadets in the CCF or rousing your mates to greater heights in an impassioned half-time team-talk. I’m often struck by the way our teachers are able to draw out thoughtful and extended answers from their pupils in lessons by skilful questioning, giving ample opportunities for the development of oracy in the classroom.

House assemblies are often run by pupils, sometimes describing experiences they’ve had or focusing on the house values. I’ve heard great reports of a recent house assembly where two pupils spoke with great honesty and courage about the significant health challenges with which they have to deal, inspiring a hugely positive response from their peers in the house. 

A great way to finish the week at Abingdon is to drop in on the debating society, which meets at 4pm every Friday. The society is the oldest non-sporting club at the School and there is a proud tradition of discussion, argument, debate and dispute, which has seen some notable Old Abingdonians, such as David Mitchell, hone and refine their wit. The society is very much pupil-led as its committee decides which motions to discuss each week, always promoted with entertaining posters which are spread liberally around the school. Although the committee is made up of Sixth Formers, the society is one of the places where different year groups mix together and it’s great to see the younger pupils learning from their elders and gradually developing the confidence to deliver speeches from the floor before moving up to become speakers in their own right. Entertaining rivalries spin out week by week, as pupils with differing ideological perspectives front up to one another. The ability to engage in debate and especially to listen to your opponents’ arguments and then counter them requires thinking of the highest order and is a superb way to learn to think critically on your feet.

Another forum for public communication is the Model United Nations. The MUN gives pupils a great opportunity to think about and address global issues with pupils, once again, at the forefront and also taking the lead in organising events. It is fascinating to see how the discussions and debates unfold in the various committees, with Abingdon represented by pupils from all years from the Third Year upwards.

With so many opportunities to develop their speaking skills, the spoken word at Abingdon is in great shape and so I hope this will stand our future Old Abingdonians in good stead, whatever field they choose to go into.

An institution that believes in its future
by Sarah Wearne, Abingdon School Archivist and Author of Epitaphs of the Great War

An institution that believes in its future takes care of its past since it’s the past that gives an institution its identity, its character, its individuality.

Abingdon School is an ancient institution, we don’t know exactly how old, there are no surviving records, least of all in our archives. But we do have a letter from a researcher who, in the early 1960s, discovered a reference to the will of John de Blosneville, Abbot of Abingdon, who died in 1256 leaving a bequest to the School for the support of thirteen poor scholars. This letter allowed us to push the earliest reference to the School back more than a hundred years – and gave us the opportunity in 2006 to celebrate 750 years of its existence. The two Abbot de Blosneville scholarships that the School awards every year are an acknowledgement of this ancient benefaction.

The earliest documents in the School’s archives are dated 1563: the indenture and ordinances that John Roysse signed on 31 January 1563 in which he donated money and land to support the School, and laid out his rules for its governance. The 31 January was his 63rd birthday. Roysse wanted the School to include ‘three score and three scholars’, the sons of ‘poor widows and other poor men’s sons’ who would be educated in a schoolroom he knew to be 15 ft wide by 63 ft long. This explains why 63 has become a symbolic number for the School – why the school bell is rung 63 times on special occasions, and why in 2006 I wrote a History of Abingdon School in 63 Objects for the school website.

The ordinances decreed that the School ‘shall be called The Free School of the Holy Trinity’ and that the pupils were to say their prayers three times a day, each time ending with the words, ‘The blessed Trinity have mercy on our founder John Roysse’. There is no evidence that the School was ever known as The Free School of the Holy Trinity, nor that the pupils ever observed the prayers, but the references do explain why in 1903 the new school chapel was dedicated to the Holy Trinity and why the iconography in the fused glass window behind the altar is of the Trinity.

Preserved records give significance of the objects around us. There is a clock in the staff Common Room that was given to the School in 1743 by the Headmaster, Thomas Woods. How do we know this? Because it is recorded in the Registrum Benefactorum Scholae, the eighteenth-century, leather-bound register of benefactors, with the words, ‘The Revd. Mr Woods gave ye clock’. The clock can be seen in an 1844 print of the old schoolroom and in photographs of what is now the Common Room when it was the Big School classroom – 1870-1963 – and the Library – 1963-2018. The same register records the gift of the Chapel’s eagle lectern with the words, ‘Brasen Nose, The Eagle’, since the lectern was given to the School by Brasenose College, Oxford.

To know the history of a name or an object enriches our sense of place and reminds us of the debt we owe to our benefactors – not just Roysse and de Blosneville but the Ameys, the Yangs, John Greening, John Ingham, the Mercers’ Company and the Maude family. There are other names too: 73 on the memorial to the dead of the First World War and 49 on that of the Second, all inscribed on two brass plaques in the Chapel. But without the records that the School holds these would all just be names.

There is a letter in the archives from the Headmaster, William Grundy, to a Mr Mitchell, which he wrote on 4 April 1919. The letter asks Mr Mitchell if he ‘could spare a copy of what you consider to be the most characteristic photograph, in uniform, or not, of your son’. Second Lieutenant John Mitchell had been killed in action on 25 September 1915. Mr Mitchell’s reply and the accompanying photograph form part of a collection of letters and photographs that has given ‘life’ to the deaths of some of these casualties of war: ‘He fell leading his platoon in action’; ‘he was killed on his 28th birthday’; ‘as a Company officer he showed brilliant dash and leadership’; ‘he sleeps beside the ancient Tigris’; ‘last seen unconscious with telephone instrument in hand’; ‘I herewith enclose £2.2s.0d towards the Memorial Fund, in loving memory of a very dear boy’.

The archives promote a sense of community, of belonging. Over the past few weeks members of staff, old boys, a current parent whose great grandfather came to the School and the daughters of a man who left school in 1926 have all appreciated being able to draw on the archives for information. But the archives also show that we belong to world events too. They have been used extensively in our commemorations for the centenary of the First World War: Keith Hoult’s film on the 1914 1st IV, Jeremy Taylor’s production Abingdon and the Great War, and talks I have given to the Friends of St Helen’s Church and to Lower School.

Archives are the primary source of the School’s history. But history is made by the present, we are all currently making the School’s history. And, if the future is to be another 750 years the School of 2768 will be as enriched by the records of its past as we are. It’s our history that gives us our sense of identity, our character, our individuality – without it we could be any school – with it we are Abingdon School.

An institution that believes in its future takes care of its past.

The importance of the Other Half to wellbeing
By Mark Hindley, Deputy Head (Pastoral)

While it is always dangerous to rely on Google for too much, a quick internet search for key factors in determining happiness will throw up a pretty homogenous list. To be happy, Google would seem to suggest certain core requirements: you need to sleep well, eat healthy meals, exercise – preferably outdoors, be in positive relationships, find your workplace fulfilling, and help others. Of course the peripheries change, depending on the web address, but these are elements that keep cropping up.

How does this influence our pastoral care at Abingdon?

Clearly some of these elements we can’t control – we can tell the pupils to avoid blue light and screens before bed, but we can’t actually micro manage their sleep; we can provide healthy balanced meals, but the lure of salt-based snacks full of nutritional detritus will always appeal to hungry teenagers…..

However, it is the sense of purpose, relationships, and helping others that we are particularly keen to engrain in our pupils. It is in these areas that the Other Half really comes into its own. At Abingdon we have over 120 different extra-curricular clubs – what we refer to as the Other Half because they are as important to a pupil’s wellbeing as feeling challenged and fulfilled in their academic endeavours.

The Other Half revolves around finding an area and activity in which to immerse yourself. This might be producing an Economics magazine, lego architecture, rowing, chess, badminton or bell ringing – it doesn’t matter so long as you are with like-minded individuals who share your passion, building relationships with others, often from different year groups, in an environment where you feel valued and included.

This value isn’t dependent on extrinsic success. For example, the value in sport is not that you play fly half for England, or stroke the GB Eight, and although we usually have around 15 international sportsmen a year, they are not the driving force behind the Other Half. It is as important – perhaps more important - that the U14Ds love their exercise, or that there are Pilates sessions, or that those who don’t see themselves as physically adept find exercise that suits them.

The Other Half also allows Abingdon boys to place themselves within their community and to give something to others. This might be through the work of the Charity Committee (the whole school completed a ten mile walk this term for example), or via the huge range of community service projects we have running, typified by the fact that almost all our Fourth Year voluntarily do the DofE bronze award. We have boys playing jazz to the elderly, working in charity shops, or giving their time to local groups. A lot of helping of others is in school through mentoring younger years or organising clubs or activities, but we are also very proud of our partnership work with other local maintained schools. In the course of a year almost 1000 local primary pupils are taught by our Science Ambassadors, and we have pupils mentoring and teaching Maths – for example – to younger pupils from Fitzharrys School.

We know that life throws all of us problematic curveballs, and we are all too aware of the rising incidents of teenage mental health problems. Given that, at Abingdon what we aim to do is provide a climate - academically and pastorally - in which boys have the opportunity to thrive and establish habits for life. We want them to be physically active, to build lasting relationships, to be purposeful, and to understand the value of putting yourself out for others. If they can manage the sleeping and their 5-a-day then hopefully together we have provided the bedrock for them to have a happy and fulfilling life.

Shaping technology in schools 
By Michael Windsor, Headmaster

Sir Anthony Seldon, formerly Headmaster of Wellington College and now Vice-Chancellor of Buckingham University, recently repeated his claims for the impact that Artificial Intelligence could have on education in the future. He described AI eventually delivering an ‘Eton-style’ education to every pupil.

It is a charge regularly levelled at schools that we are 19th century institutions that are failing to adapt to the 21st century world. I would challenge this assertion, even if it is fair to say that innovations in artificial intelligence are only just beginning to affect schools. The fact that many classrooms look similar to how they looked a hundred years ago does not in my eyes reflect an unwillingness to engage with innovation but more the fact that research (and there is plenty of evidence of educationalists engaging with the large amounts of data that we can only process through new technology) shows that is generally the most effective way for pupils to learn. We should also not disregard the fact that many science labs and other teaching spaces are already set up in a way to allow plenty of pair- and group-work. At Abingdon, we have included a space in our new Sixth Form Centre that is designed to allow students to meet out of class and work through problems together, with informal furnishings and whiteboards on every wall. I still expect though that the ideas explored and discussed in this space will be put into context with a teacher, probably in a more ‘traditional’ classroom set-up.

Of course the speed of change in technology has been dazzling, with developments in artificial intelligence inspiring and terrifying in more or less equal measure. I believe we need a common-sense and critical approach to the implementation of technology in schools and not just to jump on the bandwagon because things look shiny and new.

There are some really exciting things that technology is already delivering, which is why at Abingdon we have a ‘Bring Your Own Device’ policy which means pupils (above the First Year, with Second Years using school-owned devices) always have access to a device. This for me is a huge improvement on computer suites where pupils would tend to spend the entire lesson using a computer. Instead, with devices on hand, you can take a ‘little and often’ approach and make sure you’re only using the device when it really adds something to the lesson.

Devices can be used very effectively for regular ‘low-stakes’ testing, using a platform like Kahoot which plays usefully on pupils’ inherently competitive natures, or for giving pupils a set of ‘adaptive’ questions, which mean that pupils spend less time on questions which they can answer easily and are directed more quickly to more challenging material if they can cope with it. A personal favourite resource of mine at the moment is, a subscription website which gives users access to some brilliant lectures by outstanding academics, while is an extraordinary collection of journals, books and primary sources. It would be a shame to deprive students access to these exceptional resources.

The insights that they give still need to be put into context though, and they often need amplifying or clarifying. The best way to do this is when a gifted teacher directs pupils to greater understanding through skilful questioning. I have seen computer programmes which are beginning to mimic this but at present this is limited to a narrow range of subjects (and especially Mathematics) and is intended as a support to skilful teaching, not a replacement for it. I’m still struggling to see whether there is a technology-based alternative to the careful and sensitive way in which the best teachers lead students to understanding.

Clearly schools need to remain nimble. We need to keep our eyes open to the benefits of new technologies but we also need to ensure that we don’t passively allow them to shape us (as many of us risk doing with our addiction to our mobiles) or embrace them for their own sake. Instead, we should shape technology to serve our purposes in encouraging the development of well-rounded, curious, knowledgeable, critical and thoughtful young people.

Reflections from afar - thriving examples of the Abingdon ethos
By Graeme May, Deputy Head (Academic)

I’ve just returned from nearly three weeks overseas where I was, amongst other things, interviewing boys in China, Hong Kong and Thailand who are thinking about joining Abingdon over the next couple of years. The trip has many highlights, which I may well write about more fully elsewhere, but two encounters with OAs stand out for me in particular at the moment.

In Shenzhen, southern China, Jane Jorgensen and I held a reception for current parents and former pupils (as we did everywhere we went). Often at these receptions we talk to new parents whose sons are in their first weeks at Abingdon and who are, naturally, still experiencing the culture shock of moving 6000 miles away from home and having to get on with life at Abingdon at the same speed as everyone else. The experience must initially be pretty bewildering I think, at whatever age you arrive. These new parents are anxious to hear that things are going well and we talk a lot about how our induction works and how the boys adapt quickly and are the stronger for the experience. 

On this particular occasion we were joined by Peter Zeng (OA 2011), whom I last remember meeting at our 2015 Shanghai reception. He left Abingdon to read Engineering at Oxford and then went into management consultancy with Roland Berger. The news he brought to us is that, six months ago, he completely changed jobs, moved from Shanghai to Shenzhen (a thousand miles apart) and now works for the computer gaming industry: quite a change! He expressed excitement about the change of job and city but that was in equal measure with his uncertainty and sense of unsettlement about his significant move. However, what he was certain of, and passed on to the parents at the reception, was that his experience of moving to Abingdon’s Sixth Form, especially at a time when very few from mainland China joined the school, had provided him with just the adaptability, resourcefulness and resilience skills that were now paying dividends in coping with his new role. And, we know, these are just the sorts of attributes that employers the world over are seeking in their employees above and beyond the stellar academic qualifications they bring with them. Added to this, Peter is also a good example of what we now sense about the world of work, namely that you are likely to have several ‘careers’ these days, and therefore nurturing and maintaining a broad set of employability skills will be crucial: something we see as being central to Abingdon’s emphasis on The Other Half where such things as leadership, teamwork, adaptability, resilience and creative thinking are particularly developed.

The second OA I want to talk about is Ethan Lo (OA 2017) who helped out with the Hong Kong element of the trip, which is always the busiest - over our time there we interviewed something in the region of 120 boys. He is just starting his second year at Cambridge reading Law but spared the time over one of his final weekends at home this summer to come and sit with prospective families and to talk about Abingdon with them. I am sure that having him there, along with the very supportive mothers of current Abingdonians, is invaluable in communicating to families what Abingdon is about. Ethan himself, in the way he conducted himself and handled the very many questions thrown at him, made me, and all my colleagues who were there, immensely proud of a young man whom Abingdon has had some part in shaping over the past few years. His instinct in wanting to give up his time in the service of a school he has now left is another key thing that I admire about what Abingdon nurtures in its boys - that instinct to give back. And I don’t just mean giving back to Abingdon, I mean the much wider sense I see in our boys that the privilege they have enjoyed in their lives so far carries with it a responsibility to give back to whatever community they are in and to give selflessly without expectation of reward. And I am sure that the number of business cards and offers to talk about future employment that Ethan received during our Monday evening reception are undoubtedly connected with with the open, friendly, mature and intelligent way he comes across. If Abingdon can claim some little part in the forming of those characteristics, then we can feel a strong sense of a job well done.

Why learn a language?
By Michael Windsor, Headmaster

Today marks the European Day of Languages, an event we use here at Abingdon to celebrate all language-learning, not just that of European languages.

I feel that languages form a crucial part of any curriculum. This is perhaps not surprising considering my background, as I studied French and German at university and then lived in Italy for three years, so many of my formative experiences took place overseas and revolved around language-learning. I hope that every young person might be able to enjoy similar experiences even if they decide not to devote their lives to languages.

We have to face the fact though that on a national level languages in school are having a tough time. Over the past five years, the number of pupils taking French and German GCSE/IGCSE has fallen by a quarter and although the number taking Spanish has risen in the same period, the total number of candidates in Modern Foreign Languages has decreased by 50,000.

The decision to make languages optional after the age of 14 in maintained schools in the early 2000s has undoubtedly had an impact. Many schools have also dispensed with the once ubiquitous language exchange, dissuaded by cost and the difficulty of implementing appropriate safeguarding procedures.

As a linguist, it is a joy to lead a school which bucks the trend and has such a thriving languages department. A passionate and committed team takes every pupil to at least one GCSE/IGCSE in a foreign language, and numbers in the Sixth Form are very healthy, with students responding positively to the considerable demands of the Pre-U specification, which includes literature and film study, alongside discussion of contemporary topics.

Abingdon linguists are excelling in their exams too, and Pre-U results last summer were spectacular. All 27 candidates gained D2 and D3 grades - the equivalent of 100% A*/A - with all those sitting German (5 candidates) gaining a D2/A* equivalent.

This success is down to great classroom teaching, thanks to a team who think deeply about how they go about achieving the right balance between grammatical accuracy and fluency and between the different skills that a successful language learner needs. I also believe that our pupils benefit from the full programme of language exchanges and trips; indeed, we look forward to our annual visit from pupils from Bielefeld in Germany this weekend.

Promotion of languages on a national scale tends to focus on the more utilitarian benefits of learning a language; the advantages of applying for a job with a language, the transactional aspects of surviving abroad that form the basis of the GCSE.

I wonder if we miss a trick by not also focusing on the importance of immersion in the culture of a different country. If we can arouse pupils’ interest in the food, art, literature, sport and lifestyle of the relevant countries, it brings the study of a language truly to life.

I also feel that it is deeply important that we educate young people to understand and love the way in which our neighbours live; perhaps more important than ever as we are about to leave the framework of the European Union with the resulting need to strike closer accords with individual countries.

So, let’s all find a way to mark the Day of Languages, whether it’s by learning a phrase in a new language, resuscitating our old languages or simply sampling the culture of another country; anyone for a glass of Chianti?

As they say in Moldova, noroc! (trans: good luck!)

Maintaining a good balance
By Michael Windsor, Headmaster

It has been great to welcome pupils, old and new, back to school. There has been a huge amount of work on the site over the summer and I’ve enjoyed seeing pupils exploring the new surroundings. It’s been particularly exciting to see them respond to our newest building, Beech Court. On a visit to the new library last week, I was delighted to see it packed with pupils, doing homework, completing research or reading. Situated on the first floor, the library has beautiful views of the two magnificent beech trees which give the building its name, and by the windows nearest the trees, you feel that you could be sitting amongst the branches. I’m immensely grateful to our architects, contractors and our own support staff who have worked so hard to get projects ready for the new academic year.

The events of the start of term - staff training, assemblies, chapel – are a time when we focus sharply on the ethos of the School. I’d reflected on this over the holiday. A particular highlight of our own family holiday was a visit to Lake Lugano in Switzerland, where we took the chance to visit the museum dedicated to the German 20th century author Hermann Hesse, who lived for a long time in a village called Montagnola on the shores of the lake. My great-grandmother, who had had to flee Germany during the Nazi era, had a house nearby and befriended Hesse. His novels had also had a particular significance for me when I studied them at university, and they have often had a strong appeal for people in their formative years, as they capture the struggle to make sense of the conflicting aspects of our personalities. So a visit to the museum was a must for me.

A number of Hesse’s novels deal with the theme of duality, and particularly the tension between the life of the mind and the drive of the senses. Ultimately they portray the search for a balance between these two aspects of a personality.

I reflected that this search for a sense of balance is key to what Abingdon is all about too. Our term for extra-curricular life, the Other Half, confirms that we want pupils to achieve a healthy balance between their academic studies and the broader life of the school. We are ambitious for our pupils and believe that they can excel in both areas, and indeed that success in one sphere benefits the other. The outstanding exam results that our pupils achieved this summer, which came alongside superb achievements in the Other Half, confirmed that this is indeed the case.

We want to ensure that every pupil can achieve that balance, which is why there is such a wide array of opportunities in the Other Half – over 120 different clubs and activities. This makes it possible for every pupil to find his niche at Abingdon, and have a fulfilling time both inside and outside the classroom.

It’s also vital, of course, that young people have sufficient down time when they can develop their own friendships and relationships and simply enjoy time with family and friends.

It sounds quite easy to achieve this balance but this is not always the case. Some pupils, especially those with perfectionist tendencies, will spend too long on academic work, at the possible detriment to their broader personal development and wellbeing. Others will seize the opportunities of the Other Half with so much enthusiasm that work gets squeezed excessively and their academic development can be threatened. Others again might let their social life over-dominate at the expense of success both in academia and the Other Half.

Effective pastoral structures are therefore essential in order that pupils can be steered back onto the right path if their lives have become unbalanced. Young people need the space and time to try and work things out for themselves but often a touch on the tiller may be needed by tutor or housemaster to help them get back on track. Of course at other times more radical interventions and sustained support may be required, and the art of great pastoral care is knowing which approach is required when.

I am pretty sure Hermann Hesse did not have Abingdon or the Other Half in mind when he was writing his novels. I do hope though that he would have recognised our efforts to fuse the different elements of a young person’s development into a healthy, balanced and fulfilling whole.